README

Build Status Coverage Status Gitter Telegram Greenkeeper badge

Polymath logo

Polymath Core

The Polymath Core smart contracts provide a system for launching regulatory-compliant securities tokens on a decentralized blockchain. This particular repository is the implementation of a system that allows for the creation of ST-20-compatible tokens. This system has a modular design that promotes a variety of pluggable components for various types of issuances, legal requirements, and offering processes.

Introduction to Security Tokens

What is a Security token?

A Security Token shares many of the characteristics of both fungible (erc20) and non-fungible tokens (erc721). Security tokens are designed to represent complete or fractional ownership interests in assets and/or entities. While utility tokens have no limitations on who can send or receive the token, security tokens are subject to many restrictions based on identity, jurisdiction and asset category.

Security Tokens Vs. Utility Tokens?

The concept of utility tokens is fairly well understood in the blockchain space today. Utility tokens represent access to a network, and your token purchase represents the ability to buy goods or services from that network- Think of when you purchase a arcade token to allow you to play an arcade game machine. Utility tokens give you that same type of access to a product or service. On the other hand, security tokens represent complete or fractional ownership in an asset (such as shares in a company, a real-estate asset, artwork, etc). Such as having a stake in a company, real estate, or intellectual property can all be represented by security tokens. Security tokens offer the benefit of bringing significant transparency over traditional paper shares through the use of the blockchain and its associated public ledger. Security token structure, distribution, or changes that could affect investors are now accessible to all via the blockchain.

ST-20 Interface Overview

Description

An ST-20 token is an Ethereum-based token implemented on top of the ERC-20 protocol that adds the ability for tokens to control transfers based on specific rules. ST-20 tokens rely on Transfer Managers to determine the ruleset the token should apply in order to allow or deny a transfer, be it between the issuer and investors, in a peer to peer exchange, or a transaction with an exchange.

How it works

ST-20 tokens must implement a verifyTransfer method which will be called when attempting to execute a transfer or transferFrom method. The verifyTransfer method will determine whether that transaction can be completed or not. The implementation of verifyTransfer can take many forms, but the default approach is a whitelist controlled by the GeneralTransferManager.

The ST-20 Interface

contract IST20 {
// off-chain hash
bytes32 public tokenDetails;
//transfer, transferFrom must respect the result of verifyTransfer
function verifyTransfer(address _from, address _to, uint256 _amount) view public returns (bool success);
//used to create tokens
function mint(address _investor, uint256 _amount) public returns (bool success);
}

The Polymath Core Architecture

The diagram below depicts a high-level view of the various modules, registries, and contracts implemented within Polymath Core 2.0.0:

Polymath Core architecture

Components

Polymath Registries

Security Token Registry (STR) - This registry tells us which tokens and tickers have been registered to it. This allows us to prevent people from reserving the same ticker as another issuer as well checking for inputs such as making sure it is a maximum of 10 characters and what the expiry date is on the respective ticker. Right now, if you reserve a ticker it last for 60 days. After it expires someone else can go ahead and reserve it or they you can re-register it.

With the 2.0.0 Core Release, when you deploy a token you do it through the ST registry and it keeps a record of which tokens have been registered within it.

The Module Registry - This registry keeps a record of all the different module factories.

The Features Registry - A registry of features that we may enable in the future but right now only Polymath has control of the features. Later, Polymath can easily turn access on and off.

To be clear, each module has its own factory which is in charge of deploying an instance of that module for the issuers token.

There are General factories which every token uses (if wanted). It works by sending the token to the factory where it asks for an instance of that said module and the token will add an instance of that module to itself. This allows for each token to have its unique modules associated with it. All of this is created through the factories and the module registry keeps a records of all the different modules factories that are registered.

As of now, Polymath is the only one that can add or register a module factory to the module registry. Polymath submits the modules to the registry, however, we are exploring different approaches to open up development to other parties such as potentially working with external developers to provide services to issuers through modules.

Polymath has 3 main registries 1. Security Token Registry 2. Features Registry 3. Module Registry

The Polymath Registry holds the addresses of the 3 registries above.

As of the 2.0.0 release, we have built it out so that the Module and Security Token Registry are upgradeable. This means that down the road if there is something in the logic that we need to change, we can do that without having to re-deploy the whole thing again. All we need to do is update it.

Modules

Security Token (ST-20): The SecurityToken is an implementation of the ST-20 protocol that allows the addition of different modules to control its behavior. Different modules can be attached to a SecurityToken.

We have a ST-20 token which is an Ethereum-based token implemented on top of the ERC-20 protocol that adds the ability for tokens to control transfers based on specific rules. ST-20 tokens rely on Transfer Managers to determine the ruleset the token should apply in order to allow or deny a transfer, be it between the issuer and investors, in a peer to peer exchange, or a transaction with an exchange.

To simplify, it breaks down to having a base token that gives the issuer the ability to add functionality through modules.

Example

We have modules that can deal with transfer management. Restricting transfers through a whitelist or just restricting a transfer between addresses that could make an account go over a specified limit or you can limit the amount of a token holders or you can even limit transfers to prevent dumping of tokens by having a lockup period for token holders.

The Polymath Modules

TransferManager modules: These control the logic behind transfers and how they are allowed or disallowed. By default, the ST (Security Token) gets a GeneralTransferManager module attached in order to determine if transfers should be allowed based on a whitelist approach.

The GeneralTransferManager behaves differently depending who is trying to transfer the tokens. a) In an offering setting (investors buying tokens from the issuer) the investor's address should be present on an internal whitelist managed by the issuer within the GeneralTransferManager.

b) In a peer to peer transfer, restrictions apply based on real-life lockups that are enforced on-chain. For example, if a particular holder has a 1-year sale restriction for the token, the transaction will fail until that year passes.

Security Token Offering (STO) modules: A SecurityToken can be attached to one (and only one) STO module that will dictate the logic of how those tokens will be sold/distributed. An STO is the equivalent to the Crowdsale contracts often found present in traditional ICOs.

Permission Manager modules: These modules manage permissions on different aspects of the issuance process. The issuer can use this module to manage permissions and designate administrators on his token. For example, the issuer might give a KYC firm permissions to add investors to the whitelist.

Checkpoint Modules These modules allow the issuer to define checkpoints at which token balances and the total supply of a token can be consistently queried. This functionality is useful for dividend payment mechanisms and on-chain governance, both of which need to be able to determine token balances consistently as of a specified point in time.

Burn Modules These modules allow issuers or investors to burn or redeem their tokens in exchange of another token which can be on chain or offchain.

With the Core 2.0.0 Release, Polymath has also introduced the USDTieredSTO. This new STO module allows a security token to be issued in return for investment (security token offering) in various currencies (ETH, POLY & a USD stable coin). The price of tokens is denominated in USD and the STO allows multiple tiers with different price points to be defined. Discounts for investments made in POLY can also be defined.

CLI and CLI Documentation Wiki:

The CLI is for users that want to easily walkthrough all the details of an STO issuance. The CLI documentation is located on our Github Wiki.

You can easily navigate through it with the sidebar directory in order to run the CLI and set up and test the following:

  1. Prerequisite Instructions / Deploy and setup the Polymath contracts

  2. Launch the CLI on Ganache

  3. Use the Faucet to get POLY

  4. Deploy a token + Launch a USDTieredSTO

  5. Whitelist investors

  6. Work with the Dividends module

  7. Using other CLI features

Setting up Polymath Core

Mainnet

v3.0.0

V3 Audit Report by Consensys Diligence: https://github.com/PolymathNetwork/polymath-audit-report-2019-04

Contract

Address

SecurityTokenRegistry (Data Store):

0x240f9f86b1465bf1b8eb29bc88cbf65573dfdd97

SecurityTokenRegistry (Logic):

0x92274793a65a0de42bb4bf19b393930863877630

ModuleRegistry (Data Store):

0x4566d68ea96fc2213f2446f0dd0f482146cee96d

ModuleRegistry (Logic):

0x7550fe3308ba534b44e94c83cd08b7e3c5b96db5

Polymath Registry:

0xdfabf3e4793cd30affb47ab6fa4cf4eef26bbc27

Feature Registry:

0xa3eacb03622bf1513880892b7270d965f693ffb5

ETHOracle:

0x60055e9a93aae267da5a052e95846fa9469c0e7a

POLYOracle:

0x52cb4616E191Ff664B0bff247469ce7b74579D1B

General Transfer Manager Factory:

0x5fafcfc0afd80d2f95133170172b045024ca8fd1

General Permission Manager Factory:

0xeb4c8c9d71cbe60ca0e688e4e70c5ab22abb72a4

CappedSTOFactory:

0x7c64e9cfc397db2da3213a172d783f1b9c30d7ef

USDTieredSTO Factory:

0x80ae6e1b6dc661d21ee1680bd5ff919f0400f17d

ERC20 Dividends Checkpoint Factory:

0x550fc7d520f596bfdf75dca4d9f5f3c0c6020212

Count Transfer Manager Factory:

0xA8e0a4E7f0cdECF43AFbA0360B6f64412Df2e6B0

Percentage Transfer Manager Factory:

0x5732ee7ef44dc5ab7b7cbac8ada5268c96895ca5

Manual Approval Transfer Manager Factory:

0x156389b30ae9e5ca8ec9e55ff529738480e42214

v2.0.0

Contract

Address

SecurityTokenRegistry (Proxy):

0x240f9f86b1465bf1b8eb29bc88cbf65573dfdd97

ModuleRegistry (Proxy):

0x4566d68ea96fc2213f2446f0dd0f482146cee96d

Polymath Registry:

0xdfabf3e4793cd30affb47ab6fa4cf4eef26bbc27

Feature Registry:

0xa3eacb03622bf1513880892b7270d965f693ffb5

ETHOracle:

0x60055e9a93aae267da5a052e95846fa9469c0e7a

POLYOracle:

0x52cb4616E191Ff664B0bff247469ce7b74579D1B

General Transfer Manager Factory:

0xdc95598ef2bbfdb66d02d5f3eea98ea39fbc8b26

General Permission Manager Factory:

0xf0aa1856360277c60052d6095c5b787b01388cdd

CappedSTOFactory:

0x77d89663e8819023a87bfe2bc9baaa6922c0e57c

USDTieredSTO Factory:

0x5a3a30bddae1f857a19b1aed93b5cdb3c3da809a

EthDividendsCheckpointFactory:

0x968c74c52f15b2de323eca8c677f6c9266bfefd6

ERC20 Dividends Checkpoint Factory:

0x82f9f1ab41bacb1433c79492e54bf13bccd7f9ae

Count Transfer Manager Factory:

0xd9fd7e34d6e2c47a69e02131cf8554d52c3445d5

Percentage Transfer Manager Factory:

0xe6267a9c0a227d21c95b782b1bd32bb41fc3b43b

Manual Approval Transfer Manager Factory (2.0.1):

0x6af2afad53cb334e62b90ddbdcf3a086f654c298

New SecurityTokenRegistry (2.0.1): 0x538136ed73011a766bf0a126a27300c3a7a2e6a6 (fixed bug with getTickersByOwner())

New ModuleRegistry (2.0.1): 0xbc18f144ccf87f2d98e6fa0661799fcdc3170119 (fixed bug with missing transferOwnership function)

New ManualApprovalTransferManager 0x6af2afad53cb334e62b90ddbdcf3a086f654c298 (Fixed 0x0 from bug)

KOVAN

v3.0.0

Contract

Address

SecurityTokenRegistry (Data Store):

0x91110c2f67e2881a8540417be9eadf5bc9f2f248

SecurityTokenRegistry (Logic):

0x71A4F01F6Dee751eEDc6E16FD25AC45b46e1b0d9

ModuleRegistry (Data Store):

0xde6d19d7a68d453244227b6ccc5d8e6c2314627a

ModuleRegistry (Logic):

0xC5203791C9d46161B378deaDa89A1D5B67Ba23e3

Polymath Registry:

0x5b215a7d39ee305ad28da29bf2f0425c6c2a00b3

Feature Registry:

0x8967a7cfc4b455398be2356cd05cd43b7a39697e

ETHOracle:

0xCE5551FC9d43E9D2CC255139169FC889352405C8

POLYOracle:

0x461d98EF2A0c7Ac1416EF065840fF5d4C946206C

General Transfer Manager Factory:

0x5D92B852c31C0dd3409285339051c7594eaE198e

General Permission Manager Factory:

0x559a15fa038c3FB84e993BE06235E7D9A0D1cB7d

CappedSTOFactory:

0x7CEa4A1Eced1a035A6BD5e673454f6Bc8c98b20E

USDTieredSTO Factory:

0x0C260C11B46827E9d96F9a5C7DDbb66907e2b0F3

ERC20 Dividends Checkpoint Factory:

0xE74A013FbE7B6EF5F3b4B45Ce4745dCBA3197856

Count Transfer Manager Factory:

0xbA6893CfdDdEc76dB8a4d8f833a81F456fB64e2c

Percentage Transfer Manager Factory:

0x127dcA5040f5B943100D4c4154fA4F7744e9482D

Manual Approval Transfer Manager Factory:

0xFcd05Ab2B494577AbE0a4549b2FBec6e1bce32C9

v2.0.0

New Kovan PolyTokenFaucet: 0xb347b9f5b56b431b2cf4e1d90a5995f7519ca792

Contract

Address

SecurityTokenRegistry (Proxy):

0x91110c2f67e2881a8540417be9eadf5bc9f2f248

ModuleRegistry (Proxy):

0xde6d19d7a68d453244227b6ccc5d8e6c2314627a

Polymath Registry:

0x5b215a7d39ee305ad28da29bf2f0425c6c2a00b3

Feature Registry:

0x8967a7cfc4b455398be2356cd05cd43b7a39697e

ETHOracle:

0x14542627196c7dab26eb11ffd8a407ffc476de76

POLYOracle:

0x461d98EF2A0c7Ac1416EF065840fF5d4C946206C

General Transfer Manager Factory:

0x650e9507e983077d6f822472a7dcc37626d55c7f

General Permission Manager Factory:

0xbf0bd6305b523ce055baa6dfaa9676d6b9e6090b

CappedSTOFactory:

0x01510b2c03296473f883c12d0723f0a46aa67f13

USDTieredSTO Factory:

0x8b9743e6129f7b7cca04e3611b5c8cd9b1d11e90

ERC20 Dividends Checkpoint Factory:

0x4369751df5bcb2f12f1790f525ef212a622b9c60

Count Transfer Manager Factory:

0xc7cf0c1ddc85c18672951f9bfeb7163ecc8f0e2f

Percentage Transfer Manager Factory:

0xfea5fcb254bcb4ada0f86903ff822d6372325cb1

Manual Approval Transfer Manager Factory:

0x9faa79e2ccf0eb49aa6ebde1795ad2e951ce78f8

New ManualApprovalTransferManager 0x9faa79e2ccf0eb49aa6ebde1795ad2e951ce78f8 (Fixed 0x0 from bug)

Package version requirements for your machine:

  • node v8.x.x or v9.x.x

  • npm v6.x.x or newer

  • Yarn v1.3 or newer

  • Homebrew v1.6.7 (for macOS)

  • Truffle v4.1.11 (core: 4.1.11)

  • Solidity v0.4.24 (solc-js)

  • Ganache CLI v6.1.3 (ganache-core: 2.1.2) or newer

Setup

The smart contracts are written in Solidity and tested/deployed using Truffle version 4.1.0. The new version of Truffle doesn't require testrpc to be installed separately so you can just run the following:

# Install Truffle package globally:
$ npm install --global truffle
# (Only for windows) set up build tools for node-gyp by running below command in powershell:
$ npm install --global --production windows-build-tools
# Install local node dependencies:
$ yarn

Testing

To test the code simply run:

# on *nix systems
$ npm run test
# on windows systems
$ npm run wintest

Extending Polymath Core

  1. Deploy ModuleRegistry. ModuleRegistry keeps track of all available modules that add new functionalities to Polymath-based security tokens.

  2. Deploy GeneralTransferManagerFactory. This module allows the use of a general TransferManager for newly issued security tokens. The General Transfer Manager gives STs the ability to have their transfers restricted by using an on-chain whitelist.

  3. Add the GeneralTransferManagerFactory module to ModuleRegistry by calling ModuleRegistry.registerModule().

  4. Deploy TickerRegistry. This contract handles the registration of unique token symbols. Issuers first have to claim their token symbol through the TickerRegistry. If it's available they will be able to deploy a ST with the same symbol for a set number of days before the registration expires.

  5. Deploy SecurityTokenRegistry. This contract is responsible for deploying new Security Tokens. STs should always be deployed by using the SecurityTokenRegistry.

Deploying Security Token Offerings (Network Admin Only)

Security Token Offerings (STOs) grant STs the ability to be distributed in an initial offering. Polymath offers a few out-of-the-box STO models for issuers to select from and, as the platform evolves, 3rd party developers will be able to create their own offerings and make them available to the network.

As an example, we've included a CappedSTO and CappedSTOFactory contracts.

In order to create a new STO, developers first have to create an STO Factory contract which will be responsible for instantiating STOs as Issuers select them. Each STO Factory has an STO contract attached to it, which will be instantiated for each Security Token that wants to use that particular STO.

To make an STO available for Issuers, first, deploy the STO Factory and take note of its address. Then, call moduleRegistry.registerModule(STO Factory address);

Once the STO Factory has been registered to the Module Registry, issuers will be able to see it on the Polymath dApp and they will be able to add it as a module of the ST.

Note that while anyone can register an STO Factory, only those "approved" by Polymath will be enabled to be attached by the general community. An STO Factory not yet approved by Polymath may only be used by it's author.

Code Styleguide

The polymath-core repo follows the Solidity style guide.

Links